SURFACE WHITENESS DISEASE
Cucumber is a scientific name (Cucumis sativus) of the Cucurbitaceae family.The origin of this plant is related to south and east of Asia i.e, India and China .
Cucumber cultivation has usually been around 5,000 years ago. The origin of this plant is not well known , But it is likely to be native to the tropical regions of Asia and Africa ,Because it has been cultivated for more than 3000 years as food in these areas .According to Murty and his partners, Cucumber spreads from India to the east (China) and to the west (to Asia Minor).According to data from the FAO (World Food Organization), Iran ranked 2nd in the world cucumber production after China.(Faostat, 2014).
Powdery Mildew has been common in Iran since long ago,But for the first time in Iran, the written report on Esfandiari was in 1326.Powdery mildew is one of the most important diseases in the temperate and fairly dry areas.It is a common disease in all greenhouse crops. Surface contamination is caused by different species of mushrooms. Any one attacks one or two particular herbs and sometimes
more. The pathogen is Sphaerotheca fuliginea.The disease is prevalent in most parts of the country and each year it causes significant damage to the product.
Although the application of agronomic methods and the production of relatively resistant varieties can reduce the amount of powdery mildew , But the prevalence of the disease requires the use of chemical compounds to control it.
Symptoms of illness and Life Cycle
Mushrooms producing powdery mildew are one of the most important parasites necessary for plants,Which creates a white coating on their air parts,Which leads to yellowing, dryness or a slight reduction in the quality of the product. These fungi have formed mycelium and produce a large number of non-sex spore called Kenidium in which On the surface of the leaves, they have a powdery state .
At the end of the growing season, the plant is in the white color of the mycelium, black dots that are the same Ascocarp.Ascocarp results in the survival of fungi under adverse environmental conditions and in the absence of host plants on leaves or plant debris . These fungi in winter-like mycelium fruit trees also sprout in the buds . After the weather conditions are favorable, Ascocarp absorb some water and remove asc and ascospores are thrown out by tearing the tip of the asc and under favorable environmental conditions, germinate and cause the primary contamination . The mycelium present on the surface of the host cells by the machetes directly enters the plant's epidermal cells.The spread of disease during the growing season is caused by a few generations of sytum that is released by the wind.The first symptoms of the disease are small white spots of flour on leaves and stems, which gradually flush their surface in white color and soon the developed disease, over a short period of fungal coverage, will cover both leaf areas . The early symptoms of the disease actually appear when the first cucumber flowers are opened and the bush has not yet created its creeping stem . The affected leaves are white, dry and fragile, and especially in the case of watermelon leaves, the stains are soon browned.In the affected bushes, the fruits reach their earliest dates, their skin is not well formed, their texture is softened.This fungus starts to sprout in the temperature range of 16-19 ° C and the humidity range of 95% -99%, and the ideal conditions for spreading this fungus are 20-25 ° C and humidity 80-90% . For separation of spores and distribution of temperatures of 25-30 ° C and humidity of 40-70%, with the mass flow of dry air in the spring and autumn, which in greenhouses, of course, is done by side ventilation. In general, high humidity, low temperatures, and low light are considered effective factors in the spread of this disease. The disease is more likely to occur in the early spring and early autumn, due to the warmth of the day and the lowering of the temperature during the night, as a result of the difference in temperature, and the difference in temperature between the two is humidity.
The most important method for controlling superficial white matter is the use of fungicides. Typically, sulfur or dimethylation inhibitor fungicides control the fungus. Often, these fungicides should be taken once a week. Plants are physically isolated to control the propagation of mushrooms due to older plants that can be sources. One of the most organic and perfectly safe, yet effective, products that Bryo Enhancer products control is the Ripac International Meat product, which is based on the ultra-thin phosphonics product, which has been shown to have a very effective control over surface water.
Also, the following methods are effective in controlling the disease:
1. Use strong and resistant varieties
2. Preventing increased humidity at night
3. Planting of resistant varieties near and surrounding ventilation
4. Use of biological fungicides
5- Use of chemical materials: Sulfur: a contact material with efficiency increasing with temperature rise (up to 40 ° C) and decreasing relative humidity.
-The use of substances from the group of steroids, including cros oxime methyl, has a tremendous effect.
Use of silicon in the form of potassium silicate in a food solution that makes the plant resistant to fungi.
-Ozone use: This system is also infectious for surface contamination.
Pest of Wheat Age
Wheat is one of the most important cereals and one of the strategic products in agriculture, which can be considered in the food basket of people. Wheat is a tropical plant rich in B vitamins and rich in a series of minerals, seed wheat, from which the wheat is grown, and consists of three parts that are separated during the process of flour milling. Endosperm is an internal part of wheat that forms 83% of the grain weight and is the main source of wheat flour and has the highest levels of protein, carbohydrates, iron and B group vitamins, especially B1, B2, B3 and folic acid, as well as a good source of soluble fiber Is. Wheat is one of the most important cereals and one of the strategic products in agriculture, which can be considered in the food basket of people.
Wheat is a tropical plant rich in B vitamins and rich in a series of minerals, seed wheat, from which the wheat is grown, and consists of three parts that are separated during the process of flour milling.
Endosperm is an internal part of wheat that forms 83% of the grain weight and is the main source of wheat flour and has the highest levels of protein, carbohydrate, iron and B group vitamins, especially B1, B2, B3 and folic acid, as well as a good source of soluble fiber Is.
Bran contains about 14.5% of the wheat grain weight, is available in whole wheat flour and is also usable on its own. Fiber bran contains a small amount of protein and significant amounts of vitamin E, B vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phytochemicals.
In the case of wheat, it is better to use modified varieties and high quality certified seeds that have the proper gluten and protein and are strictly avoiding the use of seeds that increase production but their quality is very low.
The age of wheat after locust is one of the most dangerous wheat pests that annually inflicts great losses on wheat fields.
The highest level of accumulation of this pest is in the mountainous and western regions of the country. The most important regions of the country are Lorestan, Fars, Hamedan, Kermanshah, Central, Kurdistan, Isfahan, and Tehran provinces.
This dangerous pest is winters under the bush of Artemisia in the mountains. Wheat, which has more than 2 percent fever, is not consumable for baking bread, sometimes unfortunately, healthy wheat is mixed with aged wheat, which reduces its adhesion, because it blends with any other wheat, the glutenin network destroys it. And the baker has to add salt to create the adhesion of these wheat.
Whenever wheat is not usable, wheat must be fed to farm animals at low prices for animal feed.
As the spring is approaching and the weather is warm, the age of wheat is also close to the wheat fields from the mountains. Farmers should be careful to take this pest from now on and take advantage of the recommendations of agricultural experts
Pest of Wheat Age
Scientific name: Eurygaster integniceps
Family name: Scutelleridae
Order name: Hemiptera
Wheat age is the most important wheat and barley pest in Iran and is distributed in most of Iran's wheat germplasm. The damage to the normal wheat age has a very long history and is currently considered a herbaceous plant in Iran. This trend has been intense in recent years, with a level of chemical resistance against it of 1165229 and 979925 hectares in 2011 and 1391. The sheer use of chemical control in pest control is not enough and should be used in the form of integrated control To be The color of the insect is full of age, brown and yellow to the bright green to dark variable. A few of the ages are colored in black, red, and copper colors, the head of the "age" is in the form of a triangle, and on it two arches have five braces and the chest are three pairs of legs, the color of which is like the general color of the body of the old age.The hat is round and its size is one millimeter. The color of the seeds is fresh green, which gradually darkens green. From the age of the baby, the nymph, which is the baby, is removed.
Puree is dark.
Stages of life age
The full insect of wheat age spends itself in the mountains and under the grass and bushes, especially bushy and snowy winter arthropods. In the late winter and early spring, after warming up and reaching temperatures up to 18 degrees Celsius, ages fly to wheat and barley farms. The age of the age is from the mountains to the grazing fields of the mother's age. A number of age-old people near wintertime do not have much distance from the wheat and barley farm, so they end up with a few flights to the cereal fields after the end of the winter.
A group of other age-old wheat species, even though far away from the farm, sometimes flies 30 to 40 kilometers to reach wheat and barley farms.
Age drop is done in one, two or three steps. If the air is warmed, age dropping is done in one step, but in the case of rain, cold and wind, the falling age is carried out in 2 to 3 stages in the fields that are planted early and The product has enough growth, age is falling.
How to damage
Wheat age losses in growth stage have 3 stages;
1- Maternal Damage; after flying in high altitudes and leaving the wintering grounds to the green fields of cereals, feeding on stems and young and green leaves of wheat. Maternal ages submerged their cartilage into the green tissue of the wheat plant and feed on food, especially the wheat gluten protein, in which case the clusters are dry and white, the damage is low at this stage and depends on the population and the density of the insect. But if the number of insects per square meter of farm is one or more than one, chemical struggles are necessary.
After one to two weeks of feeding from young leaves and stems of the wheat, the mothers age mate, and each insect contains about 70 to 80 eggs in the 14th species (seven seven parallel lines) under the leaves of green and young wheat. The eggs open after a while and nymphs (newborns) come out.
2- At the age of 4 and 5, the appendix; the maximum nutrition action is performed to complete the nourishment and the emergence of new adult insects. Nymphs span 5 steps to become the full-grown beetle of the new generation. The first instar nymphs are very tiny and light-green, and they live in the shade at the bottom of the wheat bushes and behind the leaves. Nymphs from the first age to the middle of the second century remain without movement and nutrition. After this stage of nutrition and growth begins, the nuts grow larger, they feed on wheat and cause a lot of damage.
3. Damage to adult new generation insects; At this stage, the age-old pest needs to have enough nutrition from wheat cluster seeds to grow and fly to highs and begin their summer break. Meanwhile, the wheat cluster is roughly hard and the product is being harvested. This stage is one of the most dangerous stages of wheat age, causing wrinkling and slipping of wheat seeds, and the taste of wheat has also changed during this stage; it is bitter; at this stage, the wheat age-old pest is between bark and black colors that feed on wheat clusters.
Damage to the nugget stage; At this stage, nymphs cause seeds to spoil, and by introducing the material into wheat grain, the quality of the bakery reduces the product. It has an unpleasant smell and odor and is harmful to human health.
Wheat Age Pest at this stage can attack up to 100% wheat grains and destroy them.
From the symptoms of wheat age-old seeds, a dark spot with a hazelnut around it is quite clear in the text of the yellow wheat grain. It is good to know that this damage is not the same as damage to any pest and disease.
The following factors have contributed to the release of wheat in Iran (Rajabi, 2000)
1- Excessive food availability (preferred host plants)
2- Provide suitable accommodation for long periods of time
3- Existence of suitable climatic conditions for pest activity
Wheat Age Pest Control
The most important thing a farmer must do to control the age of wheat is pest control. Wheat age control is as follows:
- In areas infected with pests, previously recognized by agricultural experts and lands with a gradient of over 8%, no wheat farming can be done, this can have a significant effect on reducing the age of wheat population.
- Crop rotation with products such as peas and lentils. In areas infected with age, especially when the pest exploded, 2-3 years from the planting of wheat is avoided, this is important to reduce the size of the age of the aphid.
- Avoid degradation of pastures and transform them into land. The most important factor in increasing the population and the flooding of wheat during the last 25 years has been the destruction of rangelands (especially in demerses of the country) and the cultivation of wheat and barley in degraded pastures, which have contributed to weight gain, increased spawning, and the conversion of ages from rangelands to migrant ages. , Is effective.
- Wheat age has many natural enemies and parasitoids are more important among them. This kind of struggle is called the biological struggle, which by abandoning these bees in wheat fields, a living organism, parasites and eliminates the living and living organism, which is perhaps one of the best ways to fight this biological struggle.
Depending on the size of the host's eggs, parasitoid bees feed one to a few eggs inside the host. The bee larvae feed on the contents of the host egg and after a few days they are black. These hatching eggs cause the age of the wheat to be prevented and blur them out black and white.
- Use forage in low-yielding fields instead of wheat and barley
- Chemical struggle with pest disease; in the event of an increase in the age of the mother and its nymphs, perhaps the last way to fight against the disease of wheat age is a chemical struggle that must be carried out in a responsible manner by farmers in a serious manner under the supervision of agricultural experts.
If the land is integrated, aerial spraying is the best approach, but unfortunately, due to the lack of integrated and costly aircraft, this does not work.
Farmers must constantly reburse to the farm if the number of maternal age per square meter is more than the number allowed to report to experts in agricultural Jihad or plant clinics located in the city.
Limit for chemical struggle with wheat and barley age
1- Mother's age: When more than 90% of the mother's age falls from overwintering to cereal fields, the chemical struggle should be as follows.
Table 1: Limit for chemical struggle with mother's age
Performance prediction per hectare
Number of years per square meter
2 to 3 tons
Less than 2 tons
1 to 2 numbers
2. Puree: The best time to fight purees is the second half of the puree
Table 2: The Limit for Chemical Struggle with Puree
Performance prediction per hectare
Number of years per square meter
2 to 3 tons
4 to 5 numbers
Less than 2 tons
3 to 4 numbers
Technical tetration: 1 liter per hectare
Diss: 300 cc per hectare
Sampling; Dear Wheat Farmers and Jokers, You need to sample your farm to know if your farm is sprayable. To do this, it's best to use a platform like wooden or metal called Platt. The plot is one meter in one meter.
For sampling across the diameter of the field from the beginning to the end of the diameter of 10 times, randomly place the plot on the wheat bushes, and then, in the same area of the plot, count the number of years by shaking the bushes in the plot, if the number of pests is as high as necessary for the fight Chemical has arrived, your farm needs spraying if it does not reach this level, spraying is not necessary .